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Spotlight on State and Local DMC Efforts

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State outline of Oklahoma

RRI Overview

DMC Efforts

DMC Initiatives

Spotlight on State and Local DMC Efforts: Oklahoma

RRI Overview

Oklahoma – Statewide Data (July 1, 2011 – June 30, 2012)

Data Point White Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
Arrests 1.00 2.86 0.90 0.27 * 1.41 0.11 1.21
Referral 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 * 1.00 1.00 1.00
Diversion 1.00 0.86 1.05 1.03 * 0.92 0.60 0.91
Detention 1.00 1.61 1.54 0.64 * 1.19 1.16 1.45
Petitioned / Charge Filing 1.00 1.26 1.29 1.02 * 0.95 0.97 1.17
1.00 1.13 1.01 0.82 * 1.01 0.70 1.07
Probation 1.00 0.88 0.83 ** * 0.89 ** 0.86
Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1.00 5.21 2.56 ** * 1.00 ** 3.62
Transferred to Adult Court 1.00 1.15 ** ** * ** ** 0.95
Statistically significant results: Bold Font
*Group is less than 1% of youth population
**Insufficient number of cases for analysis
--- Missing data for some element of calculation

DMC Efforts

Oklahoma Office of Juvenile Affairs Seal The Oklahoma DMC Assessment
The state DMC Coordinator, obtains DMC data for all 77 counties in Oklahoma. The statewide data, and those from the three major metropolitan areas are used to compute the Relative Rate Index for each jurisdiction. Data from 2005 - 2013 is currently available for analysis. These data, combined with the University of Oklahoma research, is used to guide state and local strategies.

In 2011, Oklahoma contracted with the University of Oklahoma to conduct an assessment study. The research design included two sections, quantitative and qualitative analysis. The quantitative analysis involved extracting data from the statewide juvenile online tracking system (JOLTS). In addition, researchers obtained municipal court data. All of the data was reviewed by comparing the outcome by race and violation of law. The second section of the study included the analysis of qualitative data obtained through interviews with police officers, juvenile probation officers, assistant district attorneys, public defenders, private attorneys and juvenile court justices. The information from the interviews was examined to identify subtle and overt bias, institutional/procedural bias, and social factors contributing to racial disparity in the three major metropolitan areas in Oklahoma (Comanche, Oklahoma, and Tulsa Counties).

In 2013, a second study was completed by the University of Oklahoma. The first section involved the quantitative analysis of self-report surveys from high school students. Youth from urban, suburban, and rural communities anonymously reported on criminal behavior and involvement with law enforcement. The student surveys were then compared to local arrest records. The second section of this study included further analysis of the qualitative data obtained through the interviews of juvenile justice professionals (police officers, probation officers, attorneys, and juvenile court justices).

DMC Findings in Oklahoma
Despite finding juvenile crime rates are similar among all youth, researchers found statistically significant differences, in all three counties, in treatment of white and non-white youth at arrest, intake, and outcome. Based on their analysis, differential treatment is responsible for almost all of DMC in Oklahoma. Interviews with juvenile justice professionals clearly show subtle bias, largely in the form of assigning different expectations to non-white families.

Oklahoma State Advisory Group on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Seal Strategic Response to Assessment Findings
Responses to the assessment findings include the provision of education, support, and funding to local jurisdictions to implement the CASP model. All three local jurisdictions have or are currently receiving the OJJDP Community and Strategic Planning (CASP) training to assist with the implementation of a data driven local strategy. Training about DMC is provided to key stakeholders to assist them as they examine the current system to identify policy, practice, and/ or procedures which contribute to racial disparity issues.

Additionally, jurisdictions receive evidence based training for law enforcement. The Connecticut model is currently taught in police academies in Comanche, Oklahoma, and Tulsa Counties.

DMC Initiatives

Oklahoma County, Oklahoma

In 2011, the Office of Juvenile Affairs contracted with the Burns Institute (BI) to complete a Readiness Assessment Consultation (RAC) in Oklahoma County. Interviews with key system stakeholders were conducted by BI staff. This study opened the door to begin conversations with lead staff on how to address disparity in the juvenile justice system.

During 2012, the state was awarded funding from OJJDP’s Community and Strategic Planning (CASP) Project to hire a local coordinator, develop a coalition of stakeholders, and educate the local jurisdiction about DMC.

State Response / Key Actions Steps:

  • CASP Curriculum Training: Monthly meetings were held to train key stakeholders about DMC using the CASP model and curriculum. Federal CASP trainer provided on-site training.
  • JOLTS Training: JOLTS training was provided to assist key stakeholders with understanding where and how we obtain the data to calculate the Relative Rate Index (RRI).
  • OJJDP Core Mandate Training: The state Compliance Monitor and the state DMC Coordinator provided training to stakeholders about the JJDP Act.
  • University of Oklahoma Research Findings Presented by University Researcher: Dr. Paul Ketchum explained the findings from the assessment study. This provides credibility to the data and research.
  • Local Assessment/Social Autopsy
    The Social Autopsy is an integral component of the local assessment process and is a key component of the CASP curriculum. A total of 16 cases were randomly selected by staff from Oklahoma County Juvenile Bureau, and the Office of Juvenile Affairs, as part of the social autopsy. The cases represented White, African American, Native American, Hispanic, and Asian cases that were involved in the juvenile justice system in Oklahoma County. Stakeholders and the local and state DMC Coordinators, worked together to review the cases and identify issues within the continuum of care for each juvenile.

Local Response to Assessment Findings

  • Mental Health Advocate hired and located with Intake and Probation Staff
    • Youth are screened at intake and referred to mental health advocate
    • Mental Health Advocate provides further assessment and works with youth and family to refer to services
  • Implementation of Centralized Case Management System and YLSI Risk Assessment earlier in the Juvenile Justice Continuum
    • Probation supervisors trained to train their officers on the YLSI
    • Office of Juvenile Affairs provided access to Case Management System (CMS) and YLSI Scoring
    • To address the need for unduplicated services and individualized treatment plan development through an evidenced based and bias free, needs and risk assessment. Streamlines county and state level services
  • Evaluation and Identification of Evidence Based Services for Probation Youth
    • Local Review of Contractors/Service Providers to determine Quality of Services and EBP
  • Impending Implementation of Teen Court Diversion Program
  • Impending Implementation of Day Reporting Center

Through education and partnership building, Oklahoma County, works closely with the state and local coordinator to have an ongoing DMC Strategy in place. Law enforcement, the Juvenile Bureau (Intake, Probation, and Detention), the Juvenile Services Unit (Custody and Parole youth), Service Providers, Public Defenders, and the Juvenile Court Judge have partnered in this effort.

Current trends at arrest, diversion, and detention are promising.

Arrest Trends for All Minority Youth in Oklahoma County
Oklahoma Arrest Trends for All Minority Youth in Oklahoma County - Comparison of Counties
Oklahoma Arrest Trends for All Minority Youth in Oklahoma County - Diversion
Detention Trends for All Minority Youth in Oklahoma County
Oklahoma Detention Trends for All Minority Youth in Oklahoma County - Comparison of Counties

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